Citation Formats and Sample Outlines
The author uses APA style in several examples, but you may also use MLA 8th edition format to prepare works cited lists for speech outlines. Compared to MLA 7, MLA 8 requires much less information in citations. Be sure to include URLs of web sources for our course. Also, be sure to double-check citations if you use EasyBib or another citation generator.
The sample student speech outlines below are simpler than the author’s examples above. Feel free to use or adapt elements of either format but be consistent. Follow the Outline Check Sheet in the speech assignment handout as you complete your outlines.
Informative Outline Example
Specific Purpose: At the end of this speech, my audience will know of a few imaging techniques and their benefits, so they will be able to identify what is happening when these tests are mentioned.
I. How many of you have bombarded someone else with hundreds of thousands of radioactive particles per second?
II. As someone who is going into Radiography and has participated on a number of Nuclear Imaging runs I can say that it has become a routine process for me.
III. I have run across multiple people who don’t even know the meaning or difference between an X-ray, CT scan or even a PET scan when ordered one by their physician. If you know what the different techniques are and how they are applied in the diagnosing procedure, then you will have a better understanding of what the physicians are looking for.
I. Radiation is a very useful tool when it comes to the medical field.
A. There are three distinct particles that can be emitted as radiation.
B. Alpha particles can be stopped very easily.
C. Beta particles can be blocked by skin.
D. Gamma particles can penetrate a lot of things, however they are very hazardous due to the amount of energy they contain.
II. X-rays have the same properties as Gamma rays however they have less energy, which is highly beneficial in the imaging environment.
A. X-ray is where you use a stationary Gamma camera and a stationary radiation source.
B. The radiation source is directed at the gamma camera and the area that is desired is placed in the path of the radiation.
C. The radiation is absorbed by heavy calcium deposits.
D. These scans only take a few seconds to complete.
E. This technique is best when trying to see abnormalities in bones.
III. CT scan is Computed Tomography, which uses a rotating gamma camera sensor and a rotating radiation source.
A. The radiation source and the gamma camera rotate at 180 degrees from each other around the patient.
B. The scan gives a transverse view of the human body.
C. This scan takes minutes to complete.
D. CT allows us to see a full 3D reconstruction of the human body as well as some prevalent organs.
E. This technique is best to see abnormal organs or hard tissues within the body.
IV. PET scans have a rotating gamma camera and the radiation source is stationary.
A. The radiation source is injected into the patient either orally or intravenously.
B. The radiation is attached to another molecule such as glucose as a tracer.
C. The molecule is taken up by the site of interest and concentrates in the area.
D. The PET scan is able to detect these concentrated areas and where they are in our body.
E. We can detect levels of high metabolic activity in and their relevance within the body without having invasive surgery.
F. This technique is best to see possible cancerous or defective regions.
I. There are a plethora of other imaging techniques out there however not near enough time to talk about them. The different styles of imaging give us a variety of different information we can use to assist in diagnosing a person. X-ray gives us good detailed images of bones while CT gives us good details of organs and PET gives us great information on hyperactive tissues.
II. The more knowledge you have of the medical field and of imaging modalities, then the greater your knowledge of what the physicians are looking for.
“Diagnostic Imaging: MedlinePlus.” U.S National Library of Medicine. 11 Sept. 2013. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/diagnosticimaging.html.
“Overview: Types of Medical Imaging.” Siemens, 10 Oct. 2011. www.medicalradiation.com/types-of-medical-imaging/.
Posner, Michael I., and Marcus E. Raichle. “PET imaging .” Images of Mind. New York: Scientific American Library, 1994. pp. 257-285.
Spencer, Susan S. “The Relative Contributions of MRI, SPECT, and PET Imaging in Epilepsy.” Epilepsia, 35.s6, 1994, pp. S72-S89.
Persuasive Outline Example
The Benefits of Volunteering
Specific Purpose: My specific purpose is to persuade the audience that volunteering is an easy thing to do that benefits oneself along with the others involved.
I. People in the United States today need to volunteer and give back to their communities.
II. I have seen firsthand what volunteering can do for one’s self and for the other people involved.
III. In today’s world, the need for volunteering is increasing because of the way Americans live and the way our country is. Depending on what one likes, there are many different ways for someone to get involved and volunteer. When someone becomes a volunteer, they will discover the ways it can impact and benefit their life.
I. The amount of people that are needed to volunteer is increasing.
A. The state in which our country is today, more places need people to volunteer their time.
B. The lifestyles of many Americans interfere with volunteering, which causes the needed amount of people to increase.
II. There are many ways for someone to get involved with volunteering.
A. Different organizations offer different volunteering activities so that one can choose which activity they would enjoy doing the most.
B. There are many places for one to find a volunteering opportunity that are close to them.
III. A person can find different ways that volunteering can impact and benefit their life.
A. Volunteering can have many benefits on a person when they donate their time along with those who are affected or helped by the volunteers.
B. A person can gain experience for a particular job, hobby, or interest through volunteering.
C. Volunteering one’s time can enable a person to build their resume.
I. In conclusion, the need for volunteers is going to continue to increase unless we act today and donate our time. When one volunteers they can find an opportunity to volunteer in something they enjoy doing. Once one starts to volunteer they will figure out the impact and benefits that come along with giving up some of their time for others.
II. The United States needs more volunteering done by its citizens to make an impact on our country.
Blaustein, Arthur I. Make a Difference: America’s Guide to Volunteering and Community Service. Jossey-Bass: United States, 2003.
McGuckin, Frank. Volunteerism. H.W. Wilson Company: New York, 1998.
Smith, Heather, Matt Foster, and Bryan Willis. “Helping Hands Boost Resume: Volunteering Provides Valuable Experience for Students.” Communiqué, vol. 13, no. 5, Nov. 2008.
“Volunteering Ideas for Teenagers.” Family Education, Sandbox Networks, Inc. life.familyeducation.com/slideshow/volunteer-work/29594.html.
“Volunteering in the United States News Release.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. 25 Feb. 2016. www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.htm.