Plagiarism and Citing Sources
by Kris Barton & Barbara G. Tucker is licensed CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
. Original source: https://oer.galileo.usg.edu/communication-textbooks/1/. This context was remixed by Emily McWorthy.
However, plagiarism also includes:
- Turning in someone else’s work as your own;
- Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit;
- Failing to put quotation marks around an exact quotation correctly;
- Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation;
- Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit;
- Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not.
Types of Plagiarism
When Do I Need to Cite?
Students often are puzzled about what and when to cite borrowed material from sources. However, in most cases you can go by the “repeated information” rule. If you are doing research and access ten sources, and over half of them have the same piece of information (usually a historical or scientific fact or statistic), you can assume this is “common knowledge.” That is, it is common to anyone who knows anything about the subject, and then you do not have to have a citation. If you find a piece of information in one source only, it probably represents the original research or viewpoint of that writer, and should be cited clearly. On the other hand, there are exceptions. An often-cited or used piece of information has an original source, such as a government agency, and you would be better off to find the original source and cite that. Secondly, citing sources adds to your credibility as a prepared speaker. Generally, it is better to err on the side of citing more than less.
How do I cite orally?
Quote or Paraphrase?
- The CNN News website says the federal government is releasing 40,000 felons from prison in the next few years.
- According to a report posted on CNN’s website on October 31 of 2015, the federal government’s Sentencing Commission is beginning to release prisoners in November based on a decision made in 2014. That decision was to make maximum sentences for nonviolent drug offenders shorter by an average of 18%. Over the next several years over 40,000 federal felons could be let go. However, this policy change to early release will not be easy for the justice system or those released.
- The largest release ever of federal inmates will take place in early November. At first 6,600 inmates will be released, and then over 16,000 over the first year. The U.S. Sentencing Commission says it could release over 40,000 federal felons over the upcoming years because the sentencing commission decided a year ago to lessen maximum sentences for nonviolent drug offenders and to make this this happen for those already in jail. When the Sentencing Commission says that when it made that decision, the sentences were reduced an average of 18%. Early release will be a challenge for the felons as well as the judicial system. This came from a story on CNN News website in later October 2015.
Citing Sources in the Outline and Works Cited/References Page
The examples above provide some guidance for how to phrase citations in your speech (orally) and in your outline (written). For future information on citing sources in the outline or the Works Cited/References page, please make sure to visit the Kirkwood Library’s Citation Guide.
Here is a short video that goes over citing sources on an outline and orally: